India, the second most populous country in the world, is likely to achieve the number one spot in two decades. India's future population is of concern, not only in India but to the rest of the world as well. More than half of India's states are already have fertility rates that are below replacement level, and the entire country is likely to be below replacement levels by 2035. This is a remarkable achievement. There is significant diversity in the fertility rates and rates of demographic transition across different states, and this will have important ramifications. This talk will look at the past and the future of India's demographic transition.